Studies by the ACFE and various academics have revealed over the years that, while not as common as cash schemes, employee misappropriations of other types of corporate assets than cash can sometimes prove even more disastrous than cash theft for any organization that suffers them. The median losses associated with noncash schemes is generally higher than cash schemes, being $100,000 as opposed to $60,000.
The other asset category includes such assets as inventories of all kinds, i.e., inventory for sale, supplies and equipment and some categories of fixed assets; in short, the term inventory and other assets is generally meant to encompass misapplication schemes involving any assets held by an enterprise other than cash. The theft of non-cash assets is generally classified by the ACFE into three groups: inventory schemes, supplies schemes and other asset schemes; of these schemes inventory related schemes account for approximately 70% of the losses while misappropriation of company supplies accounts for another 20%…the remaining losses are associated with several types of fixed assets, equipment, and corporate related information.
Those who study these types of fraud generally lump non-cash assets together for describing how these types of assets are misappropriated since the methods for misappropriation don’t vary much among the various asset types. The asset, no matter what it is, can be misused (or “borrowed”) or it can be stolen. Assets that are misused rather than stolen outright include company assigned vehicles, company supplies of all kinds, computers, and other office equipment. As a very frequently occurring example, a company executive might make use of a company car when on an out of the home office assignment; false documentation (both in writing and verbally) is provided to the company by the employee regarding the nature of her use of the vehicle. At the end of the trip, the car is returned intact and the cost to the fraudster’s company is only a few hundred dollars at most; but what we have here is, nonetheless, an instance of fraud when a false statement or declaration accompanies the use.
In contrast, the costs of inventory misuse schemes can be very costly. To many employees, inventory fraud of some kinds is not perceived as a crime, but rather as “borrowing” and, in truth, the actual cost of borrowing a laptop to do personal computing at home may often be immaterial if the asset is returned undamaged. On the other hand, if the employee uses the laptop to operate a side business during and after normal work hours, the consequences can be more serious for the company, especially if the employee’s business is in competition with that of the employer. Since the employee is not performing his or her assigned work duties, the employer suffers a loss of productivity and is defrauded of that portion of the employee’s wages related to the fraud. If the employee’s low productivity continues for any length of time, the employer might have to engage additional employees to compensate which means more capital diverted to wages. As noted above, if the employee’s business is like that of the employer’s, lost business for the employer would be an additional cost of the scheme. If the employee had not contracted work for his own company, the business would presumably have gone to her employer. Unauthorized use of company equipment can also mean additional wear and tear, causing company owned equipment to break down sooner than it would have under normal operating conditions.
So, what about prevention? There are preventative measures for control of other asset related frauds which, if properly installed and operating, may help prevent employee exploits directed against all the many types of inventories maintained by a typical business:
For each type of asset inventory (for sale, supplies, equipment, etc.), the following items (as appropriate) should be pre-numbered and controlled:
–raw materials requisitions
–job cost sheets
The following duties related to the distinct types of asset inventories should be handled by different employees:
–requisition of inventory
–receipt of inventory
–disbursement of inventory
–conversion of inventory to scrap
–receipt of proceeds from disposal of scrape.
Someone independent of the purchasing or warehousing function should conduct physical observation of all asset inventories according to defined schedules. Personnel conducting physical observations of these types of assets should be knowledgeable about the inventory, i.e., what types of material it should contain, where the material should physically be, etc. All company owned merchandise should be physically guarded and locked; and access should be limited to authorized personnel only.