Category Archives: How to Testify

! RVACFES May 2019 Spring Training Event !

The ACFE wants to help establish you as a consummate courtroom professional! Certified Fraud Examiners, accountants, auditors and investigative/assurance professionals of all kinds are called upon to provide testimony in criminal and civil prosecutions where their services can be used to support investigations of matters such as financial frauds, embezzlements, misapplication of funds, bankruptcy fraud, improper accounting practices, and tax fraud. Fraud examiners may also be used as defense witnesses or to support the defendant’s counsel on matters that involve accounting or audit related issues.


There are two basic kinds of testimony. The first is lay testimony (sometimes called factual testimony), where witnesses testify about what they have experienced firsthand and their factual observations. The second kind is expert testimony, where a person who, by reason of education, training, skill, or experience, is qualified to render an expert opinion regarding certain issues at hand. Typically, a fraud examiner who worked on a case will be capable of providing lay testimony based on observations made during the investigation.

Certified Fraud Examiners (CFEs) and forensic accountants serve two primary roles as experts in forensic matters: expert consultants and expert witnesses. The fraud investigator must always be prepared to serve as an expert witness in court and learning how best to do so is critical for the rounded professional. The expert consultant is an independent fraud examiner/accounting contractor who provides expert opinions in a wide array of cases, such as those relating to fraud investigations, divorces, mergers and acquisitions, employee-employer disputes, insurance disputes, and so on. In a fraud case, the CFE could identify and document all fraudulent transactions. This in turn could lead to reaching a plea bargain with a guilty employee. Therefore, the CFE helps solve a problem before any expert trial testimony is needed.

In addition, CFEs and forensic accountants are called upon to provide expert consultation services involving testimony in such areas as:

• Fraud investigations and management.
• Business valuation calculations.
• Economic damage calculations.
• Lost profits and wages.
• Disability income analysis.
• Economic analyses and valuations in matrimonial (prenuptial, postnuptial, and divorce) accounting.
• Adequacy of life insurance.
• Analysis of contract proposals.

As you will learn, the most important considerations at trial for experts are credibility, demeanor, understandability, and accuracy. Credibility is not something that can be controlled in and of itself but is a result of the factors that are under the control of the expert witness. Our speaker, HUGO HOLLAND, CFE, JD,  will expound in greater detail on these and other general guidelines:

• The answering of questions in plain language. Judges, juries, arbitrators, and others tend to believe expert testimony more when they truly understand what the expert says. It is best, therefore, to reduce complicated, technical arguments to plain language.

• The answering of only what is asked. Expert witnesses should not volunteer more than what is asked even when not volunteering more testimony could suggest that the expert’s testimony is giving the wrong impression. It is up to counsel to clear up any misimpressions through follow-up questions. That is, it is up to counsel to “rehabilitate” an expert witness who appears to have been impeached. That said, however, experienced expert witnesses sometimes volunteer information to protect their testimony from being twisted. Experience is needed to know when and how to do this. The best thing for an inexperienced expert witness is to work with experienced attorneys who know how to rehabilitate witnesses.

• The maintenance of a steady demeanor. It is important for the expert witness to maintain a steady, smooth demeanor regardless of which questions are asked and which side’s attorney asks them. It is especially undesirable to do something such as assume defensive body language when being questioned by the opposing side.

• How to be friendly and smile at appropriate times. Judges and juries are just people, and it helps to appear as relaxed but professional.

• Remain silent when there is an objection by one of the attorneys. Continue speaking only when instructed to do so.

• How best to state the facts. The expert witness should tell truth plainly and simply. You will learn how the expert’s testimony should not become more complicated or strained when it appears to be harmful to the client the expert represents. The expert witness should not try to answer questions to which she does not know the answer but should simply say that she does not know or does not have enough information to form an opinion.

• Learn to control the pace The opposing attorney can sometimes attempt to crush a witness by rapid fire questions. The expert witness should avoid firing back answers at the same pace. This can avoid giving the appearance that she is arguing with the examining attorney. It also helps prevent her from being rushed and overwhelmed to the point of making mistakes.
• Learn how to testify effectively on direct and cross examination, basic courtroom procedures, and most important, tricks for surviving on the witness stand. Improve your techniques on how to offer testimony about damages and restitution while learning to know when to draw the line between aggressive testimony and improper advocacy. Walk away with more effective report writing skills and explore the different types of evidence and legal remedies in this 2-day, ACFE instructor-led course.


The Association of Certified Fraud Examiners is the world’s largest anti-fraud organization and premier provider of antifraud training and education. Together with more than 85,000 members, the ACFE is reducing business fraud worldwide and inspiring public confidence in the integrity and objectivity within the profession. Visit to learn more.

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