A recent major article in the financial trade press alluded to the importance of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act as a piece of US government regulation of which it behooves all fraud examiners to be aware. The reference got me to thinking about the confusion that still persists regarding certain provisions of the Act among corporate players as reported in the article in question following several high profile prosecutions. Enacted to great fanfare in 1977, the purpose of the FCPA was to prevent the bribery by the agents of US corporations of foreign government officials when those agents were negotiating overseas contracts. The FCPA imposes heavy fines and penalties for both organizations and individuals. The two major provisions address: 1) bribery violations and 2) improper corporate books and records as well as maintenance of inadequate internal controls. Methods of enforcement and interpretation of the law in the US have continued to evolve to the present day.
From the first, the FCPA spawned questions of definition and interpretation for those trying to comply, i.e., who is a “foreign official?” What is the difference between a “facilitation” payment and a bribe? Who is considered a third party? How does the government define “adequate” internal controls to detect and deter bribery and corruption?
The United Kingdom enacted its UK Bribery Act in July 2010 which really represented the first real attempt at an anti-bribery law to address some of these issues. The UK Bribery Act introduced the concept of “adequate procedures”, that if followed could allow affirmative defense for an organization under investigation for bribery. The UK Bribery Act recommended several internal controls for combating bribery and offered the incentive of a more favorable result for those who could document compliance. Among the controls:
• Establish anti-bribery procedures;
• A top corporate level commitment to prevent bribery;
• Periodic and documented risk assessments;
• Proportionate due diligence;
• Communication of bribery prevention policies and procedures to all involved parties to corporate transactions;
• Monitoring of anti-bribery procedures.
The concept of an affirmative defense for adequate procedures creates quite a contrast to the US FCPA which only offers affirmative defense for payments of bona fide expenses or small gifts within the legal limits of the foreign countries involved. The UK Bribery Act simply equates all facilitation and influence payments to bribery, thus eliminating much confusion. Finally, the UK Bribery Act dealt with the problem of defining a foreign official by making it illegal to bribe anyone regardless of government affiliation. Several countries such as Russia, Canada and Brazil have enacted or updated their anti-bribery regulations to parallel the guidelines presented in the UK Bribery Act. The key to the effectiveness remains enforcement.
Then, in 2010, the US Department of Justice and the Securities Exchange Commission released a guide book introducing several hallmarks of an effective FCPA compliance program. The publication of the guidebook is a development which, according to the article I was reading, many auditors and CFE’s remain unaware, even today. The Resource Guide provides our client companies with the tools to demonstrate a proactive approach to the deterrence of bribery and corruption. Companies found out of compliance may receive some consideration during the fines and penalty stage of their cases.
The guidebook recommends that companies doing business overseas:
• Establish a code of conduct that specifically addresses the risk of bribery and corruption;
• Set the tone by designating a Chief Compliance Officer to oversee all anti-bribery and anti-corruption activities;
• Train all employees to be thoroughly prepared to address bribery and corruption risk and document that the training took place;
• Perform fraud risk assessments of potential bribery and corruption pitfalls by country and industry;
• Review the anti-corruption program annually to assess the effectiveness of policies, procedures and controls;
• Perform audits (routine and surprise) and monitor foreign business operations to assure strict compliance with the published code of conduct;
• Ensure proper legal contractual terms exist within agreements with third parties that address compliance with anti-bribery and corruption laws and regulations;
• Investigate and respond promptly and appropriately to all allegations of bribery and corruption;
• Take proper disciplinary action for violations of anti-bribery and corruption laws and regulations;
• Perform adequate due diligence that addresses the risk of bribery and corruption performed by third parties prior to entering into any business relationship.
Fraud examiners should make their clients aware that a company which can provide evidence of compliance with these recommendations is afforded many advantages if they’re ever charged with a violation of the Act. Among them is a Deferred Prosecution Agreement (DPA). Under a Deferred Prosecution Agreement the Department of Justice files a court document charging the organization while simultaneously requesting that prosecution be deferred in order to allow the company to demonstrate good conduct going forward. The DPA is an agreement by the organization to: cooperate with the government, accept the factual findings of the investigation, and admit culpability if so warranted. Additionally, companies may be directed to participate in compliance and remediation efforts, e.g., a court-appointed monitor. If the company completes the term of the DPA the DOJ will dismiss the charges without imposing fines and penalties!
The DOJ and the company may alternatively even enter into a Non-Prosecution Agreement. Under such an agreement the DOJ retains the right to file charges against the organization at a later time should the organization fail to comply. The NPA is not filed with the courts but is maintained by both the DOJ and the company and posted on the DOJ website. Similar to the DPA, the organization agrees to monetary penalties, ongoing cooperation, admission to relevant facts, as well as compliance and remediation of policies, procedures and controls. If the company complies with the agreement, the DOJ will, again, drop all charges.
The good news is that, since publication of the guidebook, corporate compliance programs have continued to mature, and are now generally accepted as just another cost of conducting business in a global marketplace. The US government is continuing to clarify expectations with regard to corporate responsibility at home and abroad, and working with international partners and their compliance programs.
Increased cooperation between the public and private sectors to address these issues will assist in leveling the playing field in the global marketplace. Non-government and civil society organizations, i.e. World Bank and Transparency International, are playing a key role in this effort. These organizations set standards, apply pressure on foreign governments to enact stricter anti-bribery and corruption laws, and enforce those laws. Coordination and cooperation among government, business and civil entities, reduce the incidences of bribery and corruption and increase opportunities for companies to compete fairly and ethically in the global marketplace. Hence, every fraud examiner and assurance professional should strongly support these efforts while strongly encouraging our clients to become familiar with and comply with the provisions of the recently updated 2010 guidebook.